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Dr. Ralf Gleichmann
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A singularity-free Big Bang necessarily demands a pre-history with agglomeration of bosonic neutron-matter, being completely incompatible to the Standard Model of Particle Physics (based on elementary, fermionic Quarks). But all the experimental results to the substructure of nucleons still allow a different interpretation of the nucleon structure. The alternative, investigated in this paper, assumes non-elementary Quarks with relativistic lepton-orbital-substructure and comes to a Direct Structure Model of Matter (the basic units may be truely set free in experiments). Extreme compression of such a kind of matter would result in complete annihilation, the ignition of a Big Bang. Prerequisite is a general principle of orbital formation that holds for any atomic or sub-nuclear dimension. The great advantage is a model with simple but logical structure that uses only photons, electrons, positrons and neutrinos. It allows in addition a straight and easy explanation of the generation, structure and properties of Dark Matter. Furthermore it will be demonstrated that there exist now only two acting forces or fields: electromagnetism and gravity. Strong and Weak Interaction will be shown to be only effects related to the inner structure and dynamics of Quarks. A model that considers orbital structures in any level of matter enables the prediction of the Quark size with 4.11 × 10^-17 m. This might be proved by the detection of a peak of the strenght of electron wide-angle-scattering around 30 GeV (measurement of the Quark-size). Contrary to the Standard Model a Direct Structure Model is able to explain in a truely logic way the experimentally observed individual spin contributions of the Quarks to the total spin of protons.
Introducing a gas-like medium with high-speed-elasticity explains Dark Energy, the mechanisms of gravity and its relation to electromagnetism and the basics of Quantum Mechanics. In addition first crude models of photon and electron are achieved. The Direct Structure Model results in singularity-free Big Bangs without inflation within a cyclic 'multiverse' comprising uncountable independent partial-universes such as ours.
preliminary remarks/supplements (pdf 32 KB; update 07/12)
model of orbitals complete [part 1] (pdf 725 KB; update 03/17 )
(change: general impovements and expansions, introduction, chapter 7)
cosmology [part 2] (pdf 289 KB; update 12/15)
(change: general improvements, chapter 1)
version of publication (pdf 801 KB; update 02/13 )
[there is a printing error in eq.(9) on page 80]
Seite auf deutsch
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keywords: nuclear physics, orbitals, orbital structures, nucleons, nucleon structure, quarks, quark structure, protons, neutrons, mesons, pions, myons, kaons, neutrinos, anti-gravitation, black holes, gravitation, pair generation, photon annihilation, antiparticles, strong interaction, weak interaction, theory of relativity, fine structure constant, dark matter, dark energy, photon, photon model, photon emission